Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico

Los Ejércitos terrestres de Latinoamérica. Sus estructuras, unidades, fuerzas especiales, armamento.
Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Imagen

GUARDIA NACIONAL DE PUERTO RICO

La Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico alega ser la descendiente directa de la milicia original que existió en la isla desde la época de la conquista y de la colonización españolas a principios del siglo XVI . Los indios de Puerto Rico, llamados tainos, se rebelaron en 1511. Los españoles (sobre todo los granjeros y los trabajadores de mina) tuvieron que dejar sus trabajos y tomar las armas para defender su tierra adoptada. Desde esa esa fecha sin confirmar en 1511,cuando los taínos mataron a Cristobal de Sotomayor y quemaron la ciudad nombrada en su honor, los colonos de Borínquen tuvieron que formar, por necesidad, una clase de guardia nacional constituida por ciudadanos como sus soldados.

Se Organizaron en 1693 y fueron reorganizadas las Milicias Urbanas de Puerto Rico. Primero en 1765 como las Milicias Disciplinadas de Puerto Rico. Después de la sublevación de Lares de 1868, los españoles, que dudaban de la lealtad de los puertorriqueños, procedieron a disolver estas compañías, incluyendo la Compañía de Artilleros Morenos de Cangrejos, compañía separada compuesta por negros puertorriqueños. Las milicias, son los antepasados lineales directas de dos de las unidades nacionales de la actual Guardia Nacional: la 295 y la 296 de infantería. Las milicias fueron substituidas en 1870 por otra organización similar, El Instituto de Voluntarios.


En 1899, el congreso de los Estados Unidos autorizó el establecimiento de una unidad militar compuesta de puertorriqueños y en 1900 establecieron al Batallón de Puerto Rico. Con reorganizaciones sucesivas esta unidad se convirtió en la Infantería Voluntaria de Puerto Rico, el Regimiento Provisional de la infantería de Puerto Rico, el Regimiento de Puerto Rico, Infantería Puertorriqueña de los Estados Unidos y finalmente en 1920, el Regimiento 65 de Infantería de los Estados Unidos.

En 1906, un grupo de puertorriqueños se reunió con el gobernador Beckman Winthrop, y sugirió organizar una guardia nacional puertorriqueña. La petición no prosperó, ya que la constitución de los Estados Unidos de Norteamérica prohíbe la formación de fuerzas armadas dentro de los mismos estados o sus territorios sin la previa aprobación del Congreso.

El Regimiento de Puerto Rico, de la Infantería de Estados Unidos, con 4.000 soldados participó en los escenarios de la Primera Guerra Mundial. Entre 1917 a 1919 protegió el Canal de Panamá. Además, varias de las unidades "Home Guard" fueron organizadas y muchos de los puertorriqueños que tenían residencia en los Estados Unidos continentales sirvieron en las unidades del continente que lucharon en Europa. Los puertorriqueños de piel más obscura fueron enviados a servir en unidades racial segregadas, como la 39va. infantería, "los combatientes del infierno de Harlem" quién luchó bajo comando francés. El famoso músico y compositor Rafael Hernández, y su hermano, Jesús, sirvieron en la banda musical de esa unidad. En total, 236.000 puertorriqueños fueron registrados durante el reclutamiento para la Primera Guerra Mundial y 18.000 prestaron servicio en el ejército.

Después la Primera Guerra Mundial la necesidad de una unidad de guardia nacional llegó a ser evidente a un oficial puertorriqueño del ejército regular, que había servido como instructor en la preparación de los oficiales de Puerto Rico. Le presentó su propuesta al gobernador de entonces de Puerto Rico, Arturo Yager. Inmediatamente después de la conclusión de la primera guerra mundial sus esfuerzos fueron coronados, con la aprobación y la formación de la organización de la Guardia Nacional en 1919. Este oficial era el General Luis Raúl Esteves, el primer puertorriqueño en graduarse de la Academia Militar de los E.E.U.U. en West Point, y el primer comandante oficial de la división nacional de la Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico.

Al primer regimiento de la Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico se le conoció como "First Infantry Regiment", organizado el 2 de junio de 1920. El 26 de diciembre de 1922 fue reorganizado como el "Regimiento 295 de Infantería. En marzo 1 de 1936 surje el Regimiento 396 de Infantería. Anteriormente, el 296 existía como un batallón subordinado al Regimiento 295 de Infantería.

El 9 de julio de 1922 se organizó la compañía A, del Primer Batallón 296 de Infantería. Tuvieron a cargo la organización de la unidad el Capitán Candelario Morales y los Tenientes Jesús M. Negron, Juan Pont Zayas, Juan J. Rivera, Ramiro Irizarry, siendo el Sargento Primero José Benítez.

En 18 de octubre de 1940, la unidad fue ordenada a trasladarse al Campamento Tortuquero. La Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico, bajo el mando del General de Brigada Luís Raúl Estévez, empezaba un riguroso adiestramiento por un año. Poco tiempo más tarde entraron los Estados Unidos de América en guerra.

Aunque los planes de la guerra no llamaron para el servicio activo a las brigadas separadas de la infantería en los Estados Unidos, el Departamento Guerra autorizó una nueva brigada en la Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico, la 92 de Infantería. Los nuevos cuarteles iniciaron su servicio el 15 de octubre de 1940, pero continuaron activos menos de dos años sin ver combate. En julio 1942 el Caribbean Defense Command desactivó la brigada y la substituyó por la Fuerza Móvil de Puerto Rico.

A principios del 1946, regresaban los soldados del 296 de Infantería de las lejanas regiones del Pacifico, donde se les había encomendado una difícil misión. Pocos días más tarde fueron licenciados.

El 22 de diciembre de 1946, resurge nuevamente la Compañía de Aibonito, pero esta vez con el nombre de Compañía I, del 296 de Infantería. El Coronel Juan Cesar Cordero Dávila y el Teniente Coronel Jacinto Castrillo, para esa época Comandante y Ejecutivo del 296, respectivamente, encomendaron la misión al Capitán Santiago Díaz y al Sargento Primero Fernando Lara.

La misión estatal es la de mantener unidades debidamente equipadas, entrenadas y organizada con esquemas típicamente militares, bajo ordenes del gobernador, con el propósito de proteger las vidas y propiedades; además de conservar la paz y el orden. La anterior responsabilidad federal le permite a esta institución militar apoyar en caso de guerra o emergencia nacional al ejército y fuerza aérea regulares, y esto último se da por orden del Presidente de los Estados Unidos. El gobernador en su calidad de Comandante, puede llamar a toda o parte de la fuerza, para atender localmente desastres naturales o desordenes en apoyo de las fuerzas civiles en cuestiones de orden público, y ejerce su mando a través del Ayudante General.

Aquí la guardia nacional participa en actividades cívicas con la población, en reparación de puentes y carreteras, acueductos, distribuyendo agua en los pueblos en tiempos de sequías, apoyando con servicios médicos a comunidades aisladas entre otros. Además contribuye con la economía, al canalizar los recursos anuales provenientes de los gobiernos federales, representados en los pagos y gastos militares de los miembros de la Guardia Nacional, en los costos de operación y mantenimiento del equipo.

La PRARNG (Puerto Rico Army National Guard) ha brindado apoyo a las comunidades utilizando sus recursos especializados. Las unidades médicas proporcionan cuidado médico, educación e inmunizaciones preventivas en vecindades de bajos ingresos. Los miembros de la Guardia Nacional colaboraron con las agencias estatales a cargo del cumplimiento de la ley y sus programas anti-drogas, dando como resultado la incautación de millones de dólares en drogas ilegales.

Durante la operación Centurion en 1996, unidades de PRNG y la policía hicieron intervenciones en 76 residenciales públicos, con el propósito de arrestar a los distribuidores de drogas y a los criminales, y restaurar el orden en las comunidades. La PRARNG es la única organización en los E.E.U.U. que conduce los tres programas NGB-patrocinados por la juventud: STARBASE, Youth Conservation Corps, and Challenge.

A nivel internacional, El 113vo. Destacamento Móvil de Asuntos Públicos fue desplegado en Honduras, Nicaragua y El Salvador como apoyo a las ayudas internacionales durante el desastre del huracán Mitch.Las unidades de la aviación proporcionaron la ayuda con helicópteros a las Fuerzas Conjuntas Esteli en Nicaragua como parte de el ejercicio militar meridional New Horizons '99 de el Comando Sur de los Estados Unidos.

ImagenImagenImagenImagenImagen
Última edición por Jose Planas el 11 Jul 2010, 04:38, editado 2 veces en total.


And...
Coronel
Coronel
Mensajes: 3414
Registrado: 15 Feb 2009, 23:50

Mensaje por And... »

Esto deberia estar en otro lado ya que Puerto Rico depende de los Estados Unidos de America.


"Los tiranos no pueden acercarse a los muros invencibles de Colombia sin expiar con su impura sangre la audacia de sus delirios."...Simón Bolívar
Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Bueno la puse aqui ya que a pesar de ser parte del U.S. Army es el unico cuerpo militar dentro de dicho organismo compuesto casi en su totalidad por personas cuya identidad es latina e hispanoparlante y en el cual es bien notable la marcada diferencia que existe entre los miembros de dicho cuerpo con los demas del resto de la nacion norteamericana. Y si no es aqui que va entonces que decidan los moderadores del foro si se mueve para otro sitio o se elimina. Mientras tanto el que pueda contribuir a brindar informacion referente a las misiones y logros de este cuerpo militar pues se le agradecera la contribucion.


Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Imagen

Imagen

Imagen

Imagen


Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 65th Infantry Regiment, Puerto Rico National Guard, teaches Ugandan People's Defense Force
Última edición por Jose Planas el 12 Sep 2010, 15:54, editado 6 veces en total.


Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

http://img710.enlaceno.us/img710/948/ ... lguard.mp4
En este video podran apreciar a miembros del Batallon 130 de la Guardia Nacional de Puerto Rico liberando a un cautivo en Irak, y en el podran apreciar a que me referia cuando dije que este cuerpo es distinto al del resto de la nacion norteamericana.


Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Imagen

A7 CORSAIR (RETIRADO)
Última edición por Jose Planas el 12 Sep 2010, 15:55, editado 2 veces en total.


Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Imagen
Eurocopter-Kawasaki UH-72A Lakota
Warning con la compra de este equipo, parece que sale malo.
Última edición por Jose Planas el 04 Ene 2011, 04:14, editado 2 veces en total.


Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Imagen

SOLDADO DE LA COMPAÑIA CHARLIE, PRIMER BATALLON, REGIMIENTO 162, ARTILLERIA DE CAMPO DE LA GUARDIA NACIONAL DE PUERTO RICO EN LA PROVINCIA KHOWST AFGHANISTAN.
Última edición por Jose Planas el 12 Sep 2010, 15:57, editado 1 vez en total.


Avatar de Usuario
Loïc
General de División
General de División
Mensajes: 7191
Registrado: 13 Mar 2003, 02:45
Ubicación: Riom AUVERGNE Bourbonnais FRANCE

Mensaje por Loïc »

La comparacion no es adecuada, y sobre todo con los territorios Franceses, son ejemplos diametralmente opuestos al estatuto de Puerto Rico , la Martinica o la Guyana son departamentos Franceses como la Lozère o los Pirineos Atlanticos mientras que Puerto Rico hay que recordarse que es un Estado Libre Asociado "no incorporado" a los Estados Unidos y por consiguiente su particularismo hace de este territorio el 21° Estado de Latinoamérica
esta autonomia puede justificar su presencia aqui o el hecho de incluir datos sobre la GN de Puerto Rico en un libro de geopolitica Latinoaméricana, esto lo he visto

Los puertorriqueños de piel más obscura fueron enviados a servir en unidades racial segregadas, como la 39va. infantería, "los combatientes del infierno de Harlem" quién luchó bajo comando francés

En efecto pero falta un "6", era el 369° Regimiento de Infanteria, el 369° y 3 otros regimientos de la 93° Division negra-norteaméricana fueron repartidos entre Divisiones Francesas y hicieron la guerra con ellas


"A Moi Auvergne"
Ohé Partisanos Obreros y Campesinos es la alarma - Esta noche el enemigo conocerà el precio de la sangre y de las lagrimas
Avatar de Usuario
Mauricio
Mariscal de Campo
Mariscal de Campo
Mensajes: 25891
Registrado: 21 Feb 2003, 20:39

Mensaje por Mauricio »

And... escribió:Esto deberia estar en otro lado ya que Puerto Rico depende de los Estados Unidos de America.


Por aquella regla de tres, borramos el tema de Colombia también... :D


Imperialista entregado a las Fuerzas Capitalistas del Mal
And...
Coronel
Coronel
Mensajes: 3414
Registrado: 15 Feb 2009, 23:50

Mensaje por And... »

Mauricio escribió:
And... escribió:Esto deberia estar en otro lado ya que Puerto Rico depende de los Estados Unidos de America.


Por aquella regla de tres, borramos el tema de Colombia también... :D


Tenes una regla de tres muy puta :mrgreen:


"Los tiranos no pueden acercarse a los muros invencibles de Colombia sin expiar con su impura sangre la audacia de sus delirios."...Simón Bolívar
Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Imagen

PUERTO RICO 65 INFANTRY REGIMENT

The 65th Infantry Regiment, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers", was an all-volunteer Puerto Rican regiment of the United States Army. Its motto was Honor et Fidelitas, Latin for Honor and Fidelity. It participated in World War I, World War II, and the Korean War. In 1956, the 65th Infantry was deactivated and became the only unit ever to be transferred from an active Army component to the Puerto Rico National Guard. The 1st Battalion, 65th Infantry Regiment (1-65th Infantry) was assigned to the 92nd Infantry Brigade (now the 92d Infantry Brigade Combat Team), PRARNG along with its sister battalion, the 1-296th Infantry, and has served in the War against Terrorism and Operations Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom.

Puerto Ricans have participated in every major American military conflict, from the American Revolution, when volunteers from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Mexico fought the British in 1779 under the command of General Bernardo de Gálvez (1746 – 1786), to the present-day conflict in Iraq. The 65th Infantry which was originally activated as the "Porto Rico Regiment" in 1898, served in World War I, and fired the first shot of World War I on behalf of the United States. It was involved in active combat during World War II. However, it was during the Korean War that the unit suffered the most casualties. Among the problems that they faced were the difference in languages (the common foot soldier spoke only Spanish, while the commanding officers were mostly English-speaking Americans) and the harsh, cold climate.

Imagen

Puerto Rico Regiment of Infantry.

Puerto Rico became a U.S. Territory after the 1898 Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American War. The United States appointed a military governor and soon the United States Army established itself in San Juan. The Army Appropriation Bill created by an Act of Congress on March 2, 1889 authorized the creation of the first body of native troops in Puerto Rico. On June 30, 1901, the "Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry" was organized. On July 1, 1901, the United States Senate passed a Bill which would require a strict mental and physical examination for those who wanted to join the Regiment. It also approved the recruitment of native Puerto Rican civilians to be appointed the grade of second lieutenants for a term of four years if they passed the required tests. An Act of Congress, approved on May 27, 1908, reorganized the regiment as part of the "regular" Army. Since the native Puerto Rican officers where Puerto Rican citizens and not citizens of the United States, they were required to undergo a new physical examination to determine their fitness for commissions in the Regular Army and to take an oath of U.S. citizenship with their new officers oath. By January 30, 1917, The Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry was training in Camp Las Casas which was located in Santurce, a section of San Juan in what is now El Residencial Las Casas

Imagen

World War I
First shot of World War I fired

Different units of the Regiment were stationed at other forts throughout the island. Lieutenant Teofilo Marxuach was stationed at El Morro Castle at San Juan Bay. Lt. Marxuach was the officer of the day at El Morro Castle on March 21, 1915. The Odenwald, built in 1903 (not to be confused with the German World War II war ship which carried the same name), was an armed German supply ship which tried to force its way out of the San Juan Bay and deliver supplies to the German submarines waiting in the Atlantic Ocean. Lt. Marxuach gave the order to open fire on the ship from the walls of the fort. Sergeant Encarnacion Correa then manned a machine gun and opened fire with little effect. Marxuach then ordered a cannon located at the Santa Rosa battery to fire a warning shot, forcing the Odenwald to stop and to return to port where its supplies were confiscated. The shots ordered by Lt. Marxuach were the first fired by the United States in World War I. The Odenwald was confiscated by the United States and renamed SS Newport. It was assigned to the U.S. Shipping Board, where it served until 1924 when it was retired.

On May 3, 1917, the Regiment recruited 1,969 men, considered at that time as war strength, and on May 14, 1917, the Regiment was sent to Panama in defense of the Panama Canal Zone. The Regiment returned to Puerto Rico on March 1919 and was renamed "The 65th Infantry Regiment" by the Reorganization Act of June 4, 1920. During this period a young Puerto Rican officer of the Regular Army, Major Luis R. Esteves, was sent to Camp Las Casas to serve as an instructor in the preparation of Puerto Rican Officers. Esteves in the future would become known as the "Father of the Puerto Rican National Guard".


Imagen
World War II
In 1942, at the outbreak of World War II, the 65th Infantry underwent an extensive training program and in 1943, it was sent to Panama to protect the Pacific and the Atlantic sides of the Isthmus. On November 25, 1943, Colonel Antulio Segarra, proceeded Col. John R. Menclenhall as Commander of the 65th Infantry, thus becoming the first Puerto Rican Regular Army officer to command a Regular Army regiment. On January 1944, the Regiment was embarked for Jackson Barracks in New Orleans and later sent to Fort Eustis in Newport News, Virginia in preparation for overseas deployment to North Africa. After they arrived at Casablanca, they underwent further training. By April 29, 1944, the Regiment had landed in Italy and moved on to Corsica. On September 22, 1944, the 65th Infantry landed in France and was committed to action on the Maritime Alps at Peira Cava. On December 13, 1944, the 65th Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Juan Cesar Cordero Davila, relieved the 2nd Battalion of the 442nd Infantry Regiment, a Regiment which was made up of Japanese Americans under the command of Col. Virgil R. Miller, a native of San German, Puerto Rico. The 3rd Battalion defeated Germany's 34th Infantry Division's 107th Infantry Regiment. They suffered a total of forty seven battle casualties. The first two Puerto Ricans to be killed in action from the 65th Infantry were Pvt. Sergio Sanchez-Sanchez and Sgt. Angel Martinez, from the town of Sabana Grande. On March 18, 1945, the Regiment was sent to the District of Mannheim, Germany and assigned to Military Government activities, anti-sabotage and security missions. In all, the 65th Infantry participated in the battles of Naples-Fogis, Rome-Arno, Central Europe and of the Rhineland. On October 27, 1945 the Regiment sailed from France arriving at Puerto Rico on November 9, 1945

Operation "PORTREX", prelude to the Korean War

The 65th Infantry Regiment distinguished themselves when the United States conducted a military exercise code named "Operation PORTEX", meaning Puerto Rico Exercise, on the island of Vieques on the eve of the Korean War. The objective was to see how the combined forces of the Army, Marines, Navy and Air Force would do as liberators of an enemy captured territory (Vieques) against the aggressors. The core of the aggressor ground forces were made up of Hispanic soldiers, most of which belonged to the 65th Infantry Regiment.

The liberators consisted of 32,600 combat troops from the 82nd Airborne Division's 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment and Marine Corps, who received support from the Navy and Air Force. Despite the large number of troops deployed, the 65th Infantry (the aggressor) was able to halt the offensive forces on the beaches of the island. Colonel William W. Harris, the commanding officer of the 65th, stated:

"Stopping the assault forces at the water’s edge proved that the Puerto Ricans could hold their own against the best-trained soldiers that the United States Army could put into the field"

The successful military maneuvers during PORTREX had prompted the Army’s leadership to deploy the 65th Infantry to Korea.


Imagen
Korean War

On August 26, 1950, the 65th Infantry, with 6,000 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company departed from Puerto Rico and arrived in Pusan, Korea on September 23, 1950. It was during the long sea voyage that the men nicknamed the 65th Infantry "Borinqueneers". The name is a combination of the words "Borinquen" (which was what the Tainos called the island before the arrival of the Spaniards) and "Buccaneers".

The men of the 65th, now attached to the Army's 3d Infantry Division, were among first infantrymen to meet the enemy on the battlefields of Korea. After November, 1950, they fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army after the Chinese entered the war on the North Korean side. One of the hardships suffered by the Puerto Ricans was the lack of warm clothing during the cold and harsh winters. The enemy made many attempts to encircle the Regiment, but each time they failed because of the many casualties inflicted by the 65th. The 65th was part of a task force which enabled the U.S. Marines to withdraw from the Chosin Reservoir on December 1950. When the Marines were encircled by the Chinese Communist troops close to the Manchurian border they were ordered to retreat and they worked their way back to Hungnam. The men of the 65th were rushed to their defense and ordered to stay behind and fight the enemy. As a consequence, the Marines were able to return safely to their ships. The 65th held the rear guard and were the last unit to embark from Hungnam. The men of the 65th who participated in said action were awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal.
Soldiers of the 65th, North of the Han River, Korea, June 1951.

Among the battles and operations in which the 65th participated was Operation Killer in January 1951, becoming the first Regiment to cross the Han River in South Korea during the operation. On April 1951, the Regiment participated in the Uijonbu Corridor drives and on June 1951, the 65th was the third Regiment to cross the Han Ton River. The 65th was the Regiment which took and held Chorwon and they were also instrumental in breaking the Iron Triangle of Hill 717 on July 1951. On November 1951, the Regiment fought off an attack by two Regimental size enemy units, with success. Colonel Juan Cesar Cordero Davila was named commander of 65th Infantry on February 8, 1952, thus becoming one of the highest ranking ethnic officers in the Army.

Imagen


Battles of Outpost Kelly and Jackson Height


On July 3, 1952, the Regiment defended the main line of resistance (MLR) for 47 days and saw action at Cognac, King and Queen with successful attacks on Chinese positions. On September 1952, the 65th Infantry was holding on to a hill known as "Outpost Kelly". Chinese Communist forces overran the hill in what became known as the Battle for Outpost Kelly. Twice the 65th Regiment was overwhelmed by Chinese artillery and driven off. On October the Regiment also saw action in the Chorwon Sector and on Iron Horse, Hill 391, whose lower part was called "Jackson Heights" in honor of Capt. George Jackson (see: Col. Carlos Betances Ramirez). Company "G" of the 65th fought a desperate battle to hold on to Hill 391, however the Chinese had penetrated their position and had them completely surrounded. They had to fight their way back to the MLR in the dark after they received the order to withdraw, otherwise they would have risked the possibility of being completely wiped out.

In June 1953, the 2nd Battalion conducted a series of successful raids on Hill 412 and in November the Regiment successfully counter-attacked enemy units in the Numsong Valley and held their positions until a cease-fire was reached



Mass Court Martial

Col. Cordero Davila was relieved of his command by Col. Chester B. DeGavre, a West Point graduate and a "continental," an officer from the mainland United States and the officer staff of the 65th was replaced with non-Hispanic officers. DeGavre, upset over the fact that "G" company did not hold on to Hill 391, ordered that the unit stop calling itself the "Borinqueneers", cut their special rations of rice and beans, ordered the men to shave off their mustaches and had one of them wear signs that read "I am a coward". It is believed that humiliation, combat exhaustion and the language barrier where factors that influenced some of the men of Company L in their refusal to continue to fight.

In December 1954, one hundred and sixty-two Puerto Ricans of the 65th Infantry were arrested. Ninety-five soldiers were court martialed and ninety-one were found guilty and sentenced to prison terms ranging from one to 18 years of hard labor. It was the largest mass court-martial of the Korean War. According to cultural historian Silvia Alvarez Curbelo, the government of Puerto Rico, caught in the middle of a potentially damaging affair that could jeopardize its political agenda, kept silent for nearly two months. Finally, the incidents were made known by a local newspaper alerted by several letters written by the imprisoned soldiers to their families. Secret negotiations between the U.S. and Puerto Rican governments, were made and the Secretary of the Army Robert Stevens moved quickly to remit the sentences and granted clemency and pardons to all those involved.

An Army report released in 2001 blamed the breakdown of the 65th on the following factors: a shortage of officers and noncommissioned officers, a rotation policy that removed combat-experienced leaders and soldiers, tactics that led to high casualties, an ammunition shortage, communication problems between largely white, English-speaking officers and Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican enlisted men, and declining morale. The report also found bias in the prosecution of the Puerto Ricans, citing instances of continental soldiers who were not charged after refusing to fight in similar circumstances, before and after Jackson Heights. Though the men who were court martialed were pardoned, there currently is a campaign for a formal exoneration.[

Aftermath

A total of 61,000 Puerto Ricans served in the military during the Korean War, most of them volunteers.[20] The 65th Infantry was awarded battle participation credits for the following nine campaigns: UN Defense-1950, UN Offense-1950, CCF Intervenntion-1950, First UN Counterattack Offensive-1951, UN and CCF Spring Offensive-1951, UN Summer-Fall Offensive-1951, 2nd Korean Winter 1951-52, Korean Summer-Fall-1952 and 3rd Korean Winter-1952-53. They are credited with the last battalion-sized bayonet assault in U.S. Army history.

According to El Nuevo Día newspaper, May 30, 2004 a total of 756 Puerto Ricans lost their lives in Korea, from all four branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. However, according to "All POW-MIA Korean War Casualties", the total amount of Puerto Rican casualties in the Korean War was 732, meaning that one in every forty-two casualties in the war was a Puerto Rican, however this total may vary slightly since some non-Puerto Ricans such as Captain James W. Conner were mistakenly included. Out of the 700 plus casualties suffered in the war a total of 121 men were listed as Missing in Action. The Battle of Outpost Kelly accounted for 73 of the men missing in action from the total of 121. Out of the 73 MIA's suffered by the regiment in the month of September 1952, 50 of them occurred on the same day, September 18. For a list of names of those who were declared MIA, see: List of Puerto Ricans Missing in Action in the Korean War. On February 12, 1951, General Douglas MacArthur, was quoted in Tokyo saying the following:

"The Puerto Ricans forming the ranks of the gallant 65th Infantry on the battlefields of Korea…are writing a brilliant record of achievement in battle and I am proud indeed to have them in this command. I wish that we might have many more like them."

The 65th Infantry returned to Puerto Rico and was deactivated in 1956. However, Brig. General Juan Cordero, Puerto Rico's Adjutant General, persuaded the Department of the Army to transfer the 65th Infantry from the regular Army to the Puerto Rico National Guard. This was the only unit ever transferred from active component Army to the National Guard.

Imagen

Twenty-first century

The 65th Infantry Regiment's 1st Battalion, along with its sister battalion, the 1-296th Infantry, was transferred to the 92d Infantry Brigade, PRARNG (now the 92nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team). Both battalions have served in what the United States and its allies call the War against Terrorism and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom.

In 2009, Charlie Company of the 1-65th Infantry Battalion, as the former regiment is now known, was deployed to the Horn of Africa and stationed at Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti, after completing 14 months of deployment in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Charlie Company carries the crew served weapons to protect the camp. It also operates the entry control checkpoints, protects U.S. and allied ships at the massive Djibouti Port, and guards the U.S. Embassy there. By mid 2009, the rest of the battalion deployed there in case a more larger combat maneuver element was needed to operate from the base. The area is considered as the most unstable part of Africa, and the Somalian border, whose pirates are terrorizing the seas, is less than 10 miles from Camp Lemonnier.




Imagen
Major General
Juan Cesar Cordero Davila
Commanding officer of the 65th Infantry Regiment during the Korean War


Imagen
Brigadier General
Antonio Rodriguez Balinas
First commander of the Office of the First U.S. Army Deputy Command (awarded two Silver Stars)


Imagen
Colonel
Virgil R. Miller
The 422nd Regimental Combat Team Commander who led the rescue of the "Lost Battalion" during World War II


Imagen
Colonel
Carlos Betances Ramirez
Only Puerto Rican officer to command an infantry battalion in the Korean War


Imagen
Colonel
Antulio Segarra
First Puerto Rican Regular Army officer to command a Regular Army regiment


Imagen
Lieutenant Colonel
Teófilo Marxuach
Ordered the first shot fired on behalf of the United States in World War I


Imagen
Master Sergeant
Pedro Rodriguez
Awarded two Silver Stars in one week


Imagen
Sergeant First Class
Agustin Ramos Calero
Among the most decorated (22 decorations) soldiers in the United States during World War II


ImagenImagen
Sergeant First Class
Modesto Cartagena
The most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history
Última edición por Jose Planas el 17 Jul 2010, 06:57, editado 4 veces en total.


Avatar de Usuario
Andrés Eduardo González
General
General
Mensajes: 24244
Registrado: 05 Jul 2007, 17:33
Ubicación: Bogotá (Colombia)
Colombia

Mensaje por Andrés Eduardo González »

Mauricio escribió:
And... escribió:Esto deberia estar en otro lado ya que Puerto Rico depende de los Estados Unidos de America.


Por aquella regla de tres, borramos el tema de Colombia también... :D


:cool: :cool: Perdón, ¿ésta joda qué es?... Más respeto por favor...

Muy graciosos... :?: :evil:

Por lo demás, me parece un tema interesante. Pero me molesta la "chancita"...


"En momentos de crisis, el pueblo clama a Dios y pide ayuda al soldado. En tiempos de paz, Dios es olvidado y el soldado despreciado».
Jose Planas
Cabo
Cabo
Mensajes: 147
Registrado: 06 Jun 2005, 20:37
Ubicación: PONCE

Mensaje por Jose Planas »

Imagen


Avatar de Usuario
Malcomn
General de Brigada
General de Brigada
Mensajes: 4775
Registrado: 11 Ago 2008, 20:45

Mensaje por Malcomn »

Preciosa esta ultima foto, pero me da la impresion de que esta hecha por ordenador ¿me equivoco?

Saludos.


¿Quién está conectado?

Usuarios navegando por este Foro: CommonCrawl [Bot] y 1 invitado